What is the anatomy of the eye?

The eye works like a camera to produce an image. The components work together to focus, adjust and refine the light, ensuring the brain receives an image we understand.

Light enters the eye through the cornea - the window-like structure at the front of the eye.

The iris works like a shutter and changes the pupil size, adjusting the amount of light entering the eye.  This ensures we can see no matter how bright or dim it is.

Behind the iris the crystalline lens focuses light onto the retina. It changes shape to allow us to focus on both near and far objects.  The retina is like the film in the camera.  It comprises millions of light sensitive cells that send signals to the brain through the optic nerve.

The part of the brain responsible for vision is at the back of the brain. The light signals are transmitted electrically through the nerves to the visual cortex where they are transformed into an image.

At any point on this journey from cornea to visual cortex the signal can be interrupted. This can be due to something as simple as the lens not focusing light exactly onto the retina to the nerves being damaged and not transmitting the information.

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